Illustration depicting the Treaty of Turkmenchay

Illustration depicting the Treaty of Turkmenchay, Turkmenchay, near Tabriz, the historic capital of Azerbaijan, 1828.

Treaty of Turkmenchay

Following a series of wars between the Russian Empire and the Azerbaijani Turkic Qajar Empire, the two powers signed the Treaty of Turkmenchay in 1828. The treaty established the contemporary southern border of the Republic of Azerbaijan, separating the republic from the larger Azerbaijan region in Iran along the Araxes (Araz) River. The northern part of historic Azerbaijan became a part of the Russian Empire, while the southern part was recognized as part of the Qajar Empire. The Russian Empire introduced Azerbaijan to a European education system and associated intellectual traditions.